Scab of apple and pear is a very common fungal disease in the conditions of home gardening in our country. If the pathogen Venturia inaequales Wint causes the apple tree disease, the pear plantations are affected by Venturia pirina Aderch.
Such popular seed crops as apples and pears, subject to agrotechnics and preventive treatment, are not too often affected by scab. However, in order to reduce the risk of the disease and choose the most effective control measures for the treatment of fruit stands, you need to know some features of the disease:
After the active leaf fall stage, the fungal infection continues its active development in the form of a saprotroph. In order to properly treat the affected plant, it is necessary to timely detect the appearance of the disease and assess the extent of the harmfulness. It should be remembered that it is necessary to deal with scab in a timely manner, otherwise even the most powerful and modern chemical agents will not be able to guarantee a favorable outcome.
The scab of pear plantations differs from the scab of apple trees by the type of pathogen of fungal infection, but the signs of the manifestation of the disease are almost the same. The first signs of scab lesion are the appearance on the freshly blossomed leaflets of small light green, oily, spots appearing near the veins. After a while, a brownish-olive velvety coating appears on the surface of such spots.
On the leaves of the apple tree, spots are located on the upper side, and if the pear is damaged, spots can be observed on the lower side of the foliage. Significantly affected leaves first dry out, and then fall off, regardless of the time of year.
Infection of the fruit comes from foliage. In this case, dark spots with a light border appear on the surface of a rounded shape. The surface of the spot is an olive-brownish, velvety coating. Fetal tissues in the affected areas become corky and crack. Affected fruits are deformed, and on the stalks and ovaries spots are scabs of small sizes, dark in color, with velvety. Ovaries infected with scab stop in development and fall off the tree.
The presence of moderate moisture indicators contributes to a certain shift in the timing of the lesion. In this case, the bark on the plant is covered with medium-sized swellings, and then a period of cracking and peeling sets in, which very often ends with a fairly quick dying off of the shoots. On the fruits appear small in size, rough to the touch, dark brown color spots.
Apple and pear plantations can be affected by scab at almost any age, but such a fungal disease is especially harmful for young plants. Fruit plantations can be processed both by chemical and folk remedies. As a rule, folk remedies are used at the initial stage of the disease, as well as for preventive purposes. It is very important to plant fruit trees with different resistance to fungal infections.and also to observe the optimal distance between plants during planting and timely thin out thickened tree crowns.
|Alirin-B||Spraying of fruit stands during the period of active vegetation||Wettable powder at the rate of 6-15 g per hundred square meters of garden plantings||It is necessary to carry out two-time processing with an interval of two weeks|
|Gamair||At the stage of the pink bud, immediately after flowering, at the phase of the formation of fruits the size of a hazelnut||The average consumption is 2−5 l per tree and may vary depending on the age of the plantings and varietal characteristics||Dilute the working solution at the rate of 10 tablets per 10 liters of water. It is necessary to carry out triple processing|
|"Speed"||Treatment before and after flowering with an interval of two weeks||The average consumption is 2−5 l per tree and may vary depending on the age of the plantings and varietal characteristics||Dilute 2 ml of concentrated emulsion in 10 l of water and spray twice|
|Strobes||Spraying of fruit stands during the period of active vegetation||The average flow rate of the working fluid is about 12-15 l per one hundredth of fruit stands||This drug should be used in combination with other fungicides.|
|"Bordeaux mixture-GRP"||Processing of plantings in the early spring, before and during budding||The average flow rate of the working fluid does not exceed 10-15 l per hundred||For spraying, use a 3-4% working solution of the drug|
|Abiga Peak||Spraying of fruit stands during the period of active vegetation||To prepare the working solution, 50 g of the drug should be diluted in 10 l of water||Four-fold processing of stands is carried out with an interval of three weeks|
|Poliram-DF||The first treatment in the green cone phase, the second spraying on a pink bud, the third treatment at the end of flowering, and the fourth - on fruits the size of a walnut||The average flow rate does not exceed 15 liters per hundred||The final processing should be carried out no later than two months before the harvest|
It is recommended to carry out timely trimming of the crown, which will ensure the necessary level of ventilation. Particular attention is required to remove sources of infection. It is imperative to remove fallen leaves and fruits. Foliage collected after autumn leaf fall is undesirable to dig in the soil of trunks. It is best to burn all the garbage collected in the autumn period or to put it in a compost heap.
It is very important to conduct regular inspections of fruit stands and timely prune and destroy all affected branches and shoots. Trunk circles around the trees of apple and pear, must be free from any weed vegetation and mulched with quality humus or peat. Timely implementation of preventive measures aimed at preventing the defeat of fruit plantations by scab, minimizes the risk of infection and maintain the health of garden plants.